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Open Badges Commentary

Immunostimulation using granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

Joerg C Schefold

Author Affiliations

Department of Nephrology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medicine Berlin, Charité Campus Virchow Clinic, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany

Critical Care 2011, 15:136  doi:10.1186/cc10092

Please see related research by Bo et al,

Published: 31 March 2011


Sepsis is associated with failure of multiple organs, including failure of the immune system. The resulting 'sepsis-associated immunosuppression' resembles a state of immunological anergy that is characterized by repeated 'infectious hits', prolonged multiple-organ failure, and death. As a consequence, adjunctive treatment approaches using measures of immunostimulation with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were tested in animal experiments and clinical trials. Herein, data from randomized clinical trials will be discussed in the context of a recently published meta-analysis investigating the effects of granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.