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Imbalanced pro- and anti-Th17 responses (IL-17/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) predict fatal outcome in 2009 pandemic influenza

Raquel Almansa1, Lorenzo Socias2, Paula Ramirez3, Ignacio Martin-Loeches4, Jordi Vallés4, Ana Loza5, Jordi Rello6, David J Kelvin7, Cristobal León5, Jesús Blanco8, David Andaluz9, Dariela Micheloud10, Enrique Maraví11, Raul Ortiz de Lejarazu1 and Jesus F Bermejo-Martin1*

Author Affiliations

1 Infection and Immunity Medical Investigation Unit (IMI), Microbiology and Immunology Service Hospital Clínico Universitario-IECSCYL, Avda Ramón y Cajal 3, 47005 Valladolid, Spain

2 Critical Care Department, Hospital Son Llatzer-SEMICYUC, Ctra. Manacor, km 4, 07198 Palma de Mallorca, Spain

3 Critical Care Department, Hospital Universitario La Fe- SEMICYUC, Valencia, Avda Campanar 21, 46009, Spain

4 Critical Care Centre Parc Tauli, Sabadell University Hospital, Sabadell, Spain

5 Critical Care Department, Hospital Universitario de Valme SEMICYUC, Carretera de Cádiz s/n 41014 Sevilla, Spain

6 Critical Care Department, area General, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Institut de Recerca Vall d' Hebron-UAB, CIBERES-SEMICYUC, Paseo Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain

7 University Health Network, Toronto Medical Discovery Tower, 3rd floor Room 913, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7, Canada

8 Critical Care Department, Hospital Universitario Rio Hortega-SACYL-SEMICYUC and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (Instituto de Salud Carlos III), C/Dulzaina N° 2 47012 Valladolid, Spain

9 Critical Care Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario-SACYL/SEMICYUC, Avda Ramón y Cajal 3, 47005 Valladolid, Spain

10 Intensive Care Unit and Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, C/Doctor Esquerdo 46, Madrid, 28007, Spain

11 Critical Care Department, Hospital Virgen del Camino-SEMICYUC, C/de Irunlarrea 4, 31008 Pamplona, Spain

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Critical Care 2011, 15:448  doi:10.1186/cc10426

Published: 20 October 2011

First paragraph (this article has no abstract)

Several clinical studies have confirmed an association between persistent hypercytokinemia and severe 2009 pandemic influenza, but none of these have used predictive models to analyze the relationship between the cytokines involved and disease outcome [1-4].