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Collapse-to-emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest: a nationwide observational study

Soichi Koike1*, Toshio Ogawa2, Senzan Tanabe3, Shinya Matsumoto1, Manabu Akahane2, Hideo Yasunaga4, Hiromasa Horiguchi4 and Tomoaki Imamura2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Planning, Information and Management, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan

2 Department of Public Health, Health Management and Policy, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 840 Shijocho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521, Japan

3 Foundation for Ambulance Service Development, Emergency Life-Saving Technique Academy of Tokyo, 4-5 Minami-osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0364, Japan

4 Department of Health Management and Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan

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Critical Care 2011, 15:R120  doi:10.1186/cc10219

Published: 5 May 2011



The relationship between collapse to emergency medical service (EMS) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) interval and outcome has been well documented. However, most studies have only analyzed cases of cardiac origin and Vf (ventricular fibrillation)/pulseless VT (ventricular tachycardia). We sought to examine all causes of cardiac arrest and analyze the relationship between collapse-to-EMS CPR interval and outcome in a nationwide sample using an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) registry.


This was a retrospective observational study based on a nationwide OHCA patient registry in Japan between 2005 and 2008 (n = 431,968). We included cases where collapse was witnessed by a bystander and where collapse and intervention time were recorded (n = 109,350). Data were collected based on the Utstein template. One-month survival and neurologically favorable one-month survival were used as outcome measures. Logarithmic regression and logistic regression were used to examine the relation between outcomes and collapse-to-EMS CPR interval.


Among collapse-to-EMS CPR intervals between 3 and 30 minutes, the logarithmic regression equation for the relationship with one-month survival was y = -0.059 ln(x) + 0.21, while that for the relationship with neurologically favorable one-month survival was y = -0.041 ln(x) + 0.13. After adjusting for potential confounders in the logistic regression analysis for all intervals, longer collapse-to-EMS CPR intervals were associated with lower rates of one-month survival (odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93 to 0.93) and neurologically favorable one-month survival (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.90).


Improving the emergency medical system and CPR in cases of OHCA is important for improving the outcomes of OHCA.